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"Saying no to resource development is not an option": Economic development in Moose Cree First Nation


Year: 2013

Abstract:
In 2004 and 2005, the Supreme Court of Canada handed down a trilogy of decisions that outlined the doctrine of the duty to consult and accommodate, thereby changing how resource development occurs in Aboriginal traditional territories. As a result of these decisions, new avenues of economic development for well-resourced First Nations have opened up, with the hope of creating a new future for remote Aboriginal communities; but are these types of agreements meeting the expectations of First Nations and their members? The authors visited a First Nations community that recently negotiated impact and benefit agreements with large industrial proponents. The authors conducted in-depth, long interviews with 17 key informants: former chiefs and grand chiefs, executive directors of community agencies, program directors, business persons, spiritual persons and elders, property managers, and direct-service practitioners. Five themes, or areas of concern, emerged from the research: unemployment, employment, and economic stimulation; social and physical health concerns; negotiations and meaningful community involvement; corporate social responsibility, capacity building, and social capital; and environmental concerns and cultural relevance. Despite the concerns these agreements raised, 14 of 17 informants remained in favour of the impact and benefit agreements.

"Territorial groups before 1821: Athabaskans of the shield and the Mackenzie drainage."


Author(s): Gillespie, B. C.

Year: 1981

Abstract:
This essay reviews the documentary evidence that scholars have relied on to infer both aboriginal distributions and possible territorial shifts due to direct and indirect influences and events stemming from the European fur trade. The main concern of the author is with certain early historical references that present problems of interpretation regarding the territorial movements of the Chipewyan and Cree peoples. Helm discusses how the ambiguities of tribal names and the unknown effects that the fur trade had in the western interior before any direct contact make it impossible to state with any certainty whether Athapaskan people were permanently displaced from any areas by the Cree. In the early historic era, except for the expansion of the Chipewyan southward and westward, only minor changes in exploitative range between Athapaskan and Algonquian speakers as well as among the Athabaskans have been documented for the peoples within the Shield and the Mackenzie Drainage. Maps and illustrations are included.

"Traditional land use." Kearl Oil Sands Project mine development


Year: 2005

Abstract:
The objective of this section of the Kearl Lake Project Environmental Impact Assessment was to record concerns about how development has affected, and how the Kearl project specifically will further affect, the land, air, water, and traditional lifestyles of Fort McKay First Nation, Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation, and Mikisew Cree First Nation. The assessment hoped "to capture the complex relationship between community well-being, cultural identity and the land, as perceived by three Aboriginal communities affected by development in the oil sands region." Each community was invited to identify participants for discussion sessions. Fort McKay First Nation was represented by ten Elders and one trapline holder family at meetings; Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation was represented by 35 members at an initial meeting, and 12 Elders and one trapline holder at subsequent meetings; and Mikisew Cree First Nation was represented by 53 Elders at an initial meeting, and 42 Elders at subsequent meetings. A literature review, including previous traditional land use studies, was also conducted. The report is separated by community. Each community section documents the observations and concerns of community members about the project on traditional land use, as well as suggestions for mitigation, monitoring, and follow-up. Community sections are organized around the following broad themes: development issues, such as the Aboriginal consultation process, land access management, and reclamation; landscape-level effects, such as landscape integrity, power of place, and respect for animals; ecosystem health, such as medicinal plants, water resources, and various types of pollution; and human health and community well-being, such as employment, education, and physical, psychological, and spiritual health. Details within each broad theme differ for each community. Where consent was provided, the location of traditional land use sites, features, and areas of importance are also enumerated and mapped for each Nation. Each community section also includes a summarized table of project-related issues and concerns, as well as Imperial Oil's responses to those concerns.

'We are still Didene': Stories of hunting and history from northern British Columbia.


Author(s): McIlwraith, T.

Year: 2012

Abstract:
Using naturally occurring, extended transcripts of stories told by the group's hunters, Thomas McIlwraith explores how Iskut hunting culture and the memories that the Iskut share have been maintained orally.

1997-98 ungulate monitoring programs: Browse pellet group surveys and winter track counts


Year: 1998

Abstract:
An ungulate monitoring program was designed by Golder Associated Ltd. to assist Suncor Energy Inc. as part of its efforts to assess the impacts of oil sands development and the effectiveness of reclamation efforts. Ungulates (e.g. Moose and deer) were chosen as a study group because they are important economically and traditionally, relatively common in the area, and fairly easy to survey. The ungulate monitoring program consisted of browse pellet group surveys and winter track count surveys. A secondary objective of the monitoring program was to instruct one of Suncor's employees in ungulate monitoring procedures. The browse pellet group surveys were conducted in October 1997 on Waste Area 8, one of Suncor's overburden dump reclamation areas. Although evidence of browse from the current year was scant, it was evident that ungulates utilize the area. The area appeared most heavily use by moose, judging by the browse evidence and the presence of moose pellets or scat. The winter track count surveys were conducted in March 1998 on Waste Area 8, Waste Area 19, Waste Area 16, Waste Area 5, and Shipyard Lake. The majority of tracks within the reclaimed areas were from snowshoe hares, willow ptarmigans and red squirrels. A few coyote tracks were recorded as well. Snowshoe hares appeared to be feeding on willow and trembling aspen shrubs, and on jack pine branches where snow cover was high enough. Old tracks for moose and deer were recorded in Waste Area 19 and Waste Area 16. The majority of tracks recorded at Shipyard Lake were also for snowshoe hares and red squirrels. Other tracks recorded at Shipyard Lake included moose, coyote, weasel, mice and grouse. There was moderate to heavy browse evidence on the red-osier dogwood, a preferred ungulate browse species. Beaver activity was noted in a side channel parallel to the Athabasca River. A great horned owl was heard in the Shipyard Lake area.

A clear intention to effect such a modification: The NRTA and Treaty hunting and fishing rights


Author(s): Irwin, R.

Year: 2000

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to fill a gap in the historical literature regarding the Natural Resources Transfer Agreements; specifically, it aims to "provide insights into the negotiations leading to section 12 of the NRTA and identify the intent and purpose of the framers." The author, Robert Irwin, notes that the Supreme Court has made several decisions (e.g., Frank v. The Queen, Moosehunter v. The Queen, R. v. Horseman, R. v. Gladue, etc.) that have altered the understanding of Treaty rights and the NRTA regarding hunting and fishing rights, without the benefit of being able to draw on historical research on the NRTA, regarding the original intentions in its framing. Irwin asserts that in the construction of section 12 of the NRTA the Dominion intended "to ensure that Indians maintained their Treaty right of access to unoccupied Crown lands for the purpose of hunting, trapping and fishing;" it also "hoped to conserve game through wise management in the belief that this was important … because of Treaty rights;" and it recognized that hunting regulations and licensed fishing would be set by the provincial government. Irwin concludes by noting that the historical evidence suggests that "the government did not seek to extinguish and replace or merge and consolidate the Treaty rights with the NRTA."

A community guide to protecting Indigenous knowledge


Author(s): Brascoupe, S., & Mann H.

Year: 2001

Abstract:
The purpose of this guidebook is to help communities establish a practical, community-based model to facilitate controlling access to and protecting indigenous knowledge. In the words of the authors, "the main objective … is to empower communities to recognize, protect, preserve and share their knowledge in keeping with their goals and traditions." The guidebook opens with a brief introduction to the concept of indigenous knowledge, including definitions, comparisons to western science, reasons for preserving and protecting indigenous knowledge, and examples of abuses and misuses of such knowledge. Following this is a brief discussion of the community development model, but the bulk of the guidebook is comprised of a step-by-step community development process. The process includes actions like organizing a first community meeting, identifying key issues and concerns, progressing to an indigenous knowledge management approach, and securing control over the uses of a community's knowledge. The appendices include a legal terms glossary; a chart outlining general legal and other mechanisms to protect indigenous knowledge; the uses of intellectual property rights: strengths and weaknesses; and Inuit research guidelines. The authors note that even though a step-by-step process is provided, it is understood that each community will be different, with varying needs and actions. But it is hoped that the model, already familiar to many Aboriginal communities, will provide an effective starting point.

A cross-cultural comparison of scientific language use: Indigenous and eurocentric discourse on issues regarding caribou in the north


Author(s): Bechtel, R. E.

Year: 2011

Abstract:
This work is an attempt to understand and lessen the borders that exist between Indigenous knowledge and Eurocentric science. I contend that the two groups represent distinct cultures and that it is important to look at the differences and similarities that occur in language use as the two communicate on issues of mutual concern. I argue that discourse can shape knowledge in two very distinct ways within two different modes of thought; a narrative mode that is used primarily by the Aboriginal community and a scientific mode that is utilized primarily by the scientists. The research involves discourse analysis as a means of studying a unique opportunity to compare and contrast two cultures speaking on the topic of preservation of caribou in the Northwest Territories of northern Canada. Although the intention of both the Aboriginal community members and the Eurocentric scientists are the same; to preserve the caribou numbers that exist in the North, the differences in language use can create turbulence between the borders of the two cultures. I argue that this analysis will assist in comprehending and mitigating the borders that have been created that now impact life in the North. In addition, this work represents an autobiographical journey that proposes curriculum theory as a reconceptualization of the current mindset of Eurocentric scientists and science educators. While governments, government agencies, and resource management boards continue to try and bridge the borders between Aboriginal peoples and Eurocentric agents, they may find that they are better served by reconceptualizing how they view and share knowledge. Curriculum theory provides an option to not only imagine a different future but also provides strategies for looking inwards and evaluating one's own method of knowledge sharing. Aboriginal people and Eurocentric scientists both have a vested interest in protecting and maintaining caribou populations in northern Canada, but how they communicate those intentions to each other is critical if collaboration is to be possible and understanding how each other uses language can be a valuable aid in mitigating those borders.

A day with the buffalo hunters


Author(s): Bell, C. N.

Year: 1982

Abstract:
At the age of 18 the author joined five Métis on a buffalo hunt to kill "a sufficient number to furnish us with meat for the approaching winter." Details how a canoe was constructed, how the flotilla was moved down the river, and the type of food consumed by the hunters. Briefly refers to social customs of the Métis. The hunting party traveled to the Hand Hills.

A field guide to western medicinal plants and herbs


Author(s): Foster, S., & Hobbs C.

Year: 2002

Abstract:
Features more than five hundred plants and herbs of North America providing information on their location and medicinal uses.

A guide to conducting a traditional knowledge and land use study


Author(s): Garvin, T.

Year: 2001

Abstract:
The objective of this guide to conducting traditional knowledge and land use studies was to provide "a comprehensive and practical guide for First Nations and Aboriginal communities who wish to understand what is involved in doing a study." The book was assembled based on the experience of the authors, as well as "the expertise of organizations and communities who have completed these types of studies." Written in plain-language, this guide is meant as a hand-book, with ample margin space for taking notes, recommendations for further reading, and definitions. Chapter topics include "Deciding to do a Traditional Knowledge and Land Use Study," " Learning from Others," "Getting the Community Involved," "Terms of Reference," "Collecting Stories and Making Maps," "the Interview Process," "the Mapping Process," "Validating Traditional Land Use Sites," "Managing Your Information," and "Putting Your Data to Work." There is also a comprehensive selection of sample interview questions covering the beginning of an interview, general traditional land use questions, and then species-specific comments designed to elicit questions. The hand-book is finished off with an appendix: "Aseniwuche Winewak Nation TLUS Terms of Reference," which includes a six page-selection from a previously done study, exemplifying a typical introduction, methodology, administration/travel plan, sample budget, and references.

A history of Fort Chipewyan: Alberta's oldest continuously inhabited settlement


Author(s): Brady, A. J.

Year: 1983

Abstract:
Written under the sponsorship of Education North from material gathered from tapes, microfilm, photographs and rare books found in archives, libraries and in private collections. The intention of this work is to encourage further reading and study about the time in history when Fort Chipewyan was the centre of the fur trade. Chapters include information on the Chipewyan, the Woodland Cree and the Métis peoples of this area. Also discussed is the forts and their locations, transportation, rivalry on Lake Athabasca, historic sites and highlights, as well as black and white pictures of the town and its people.

A line in the tar sands: Struggles for environmental justice


Year: 2014

Abstract:
The fight over the tar sands in North America is among the epic environmental and social justice battles of our time, and one of the first that has managed to marry quite explicitly concern for frontline communities and immediate local hazards with fear for the future of the entire planet. Tar sands “development” comes with an enormous environmental and human cost. But tar sands opponents—fighting a powerful international industry—are likened to terrorists; government environmental scientists are muzzled; and public hearings are concealed and rushed. Yet, despite the formidable political and economic power behind the tar sands, many opponents are actively building international networks of resistance, challenging pipeline plans while resisting threats to Indigenous sovereignty and democratic participation.

A local traditional ecological knowledge concept of spiritual exchange


Author(s): Ghostkeeper, E.

Year: 1993

Abstract:
This paper is a brief overview of the author's thesis of the concept of "spiritual exchange". It defines the concept from a local traditional ecological knowledge point of view. The central questions that is addressed in this exercise is: how and why did the concept of "kichitawihitowina" or great gifts, used by the original Métis settlers and first generation Métis during the period 1939 to 1969, change its meaning from that used by the second and third generation Métis during the period 1970 to 1992, in the development of the Paddle Prairie Métis Settlement? Is this phenomenon a part of the dimensions of global change or only exclusive to the society of Paddle Prairie? The social organization of the two groups will be analyzed, using the social factors of economics, politics, culture, and social relations to study the concept of kichitawihitowina and what caused it to change its meaning and the effect that this change had on the development of Paddle Prairie

A new trail: Fundraising for cultural research and land use and occupancy studies: A reference guide for securing funds


Year: 2002

Abstract:
At the time of writing, no funding program aimed specifically at land use and occupancy research exists in Canada, thus the goal of the guidebook is to make fundraising for such research easier. The relatively short list of funding programs contained in the document was arrived at through discussions with practitioners and funding agencies across Canada. Because few funding programs for cultural research exist, the guidebook notes that many practitioners recommend a partnership approach to fundraising in order to maximize returns. Most of the guidebook is taken up by the list of fundraising bodies, but there is also information on First nations and the Tax Act, strategy references, ten tips for fundraising, references for other funding guidebooks, links to wage subsidy and employment programs, and an appendix of practitioners, contacts, and other useful resources.

A note on historical mortality in a northern bison population


Year: 1992

Abstract:
Mortality of bison in the area of what is now Wood Buffalo National Park was recorded in records of Fort Chipewyan for the years 1821, 1823, and 1831. There is oral tradition in the Fort Smith area that many bison died in the Slave River lowlands during one summer later in the 19th century. The records of sudden death among bison during the summer resemble features of anthrax mortality that occurred among bison in the same general area between 1962 and 1978. This suggests that anthrax may have a much longer history in the region than recognized previously.

A profile of the extended community of Fort McKay, Alberta


Year: 1995

Abstract:
This community profile constitutes one of the background studies being prepared to provide information to aid in the decision-making process relevant to the proposed new mines and their potential impacts on the community and the surrounding environment. This profile report provides a snapshot of the extended community of Fort McKay, reflecting community data current and available at the time of production. The objectives of this study are: to provide a portrait of the community and its current conditions; to identify broad demographic data; to document current economic factors, including the local business environment; to identify available services and service delivery; and to document the opinions and priorities of community members, with the focus upon future development and associated impacts.

A review of traditional environmental knowledge: An interdisciplinary Canadian perspective


Author(s): Kuhn, R. G., & Duerden F.

Year: 1996

Abstract:
During the past fifteen years, there is a growing interest in the "Traditional Knowledge of the environment" (Traditional Environmental Knowledge or TEK) and the use that is made. This increase coincides with the settlement of land claims, the emergence of co-management regimes, and the ancestry of the power and influence of First Nations in decision-making. This article examines the discourse on the current application and potential TEK. TEK is the result of complex interactions between culture and the natural environment. Although there are cosmologies and different uses, some common themes, covering the acquisition and transmission of knowledge emerge. The application of this knowledge is beneficial. However, it remains to solve some problems such as the compatibility between Western scientific knowledge and TEK as well as the acquisition and application of TEK by foreigners. When knowledge is extirpated from their immediate context, they are transformed to suit the user and the scale at which they are used. Two problems arise: 1) TEK undergoes changes being taken out of its original context, 2), it can be boarded at decisions on the management of land and resources in a way that is not used automatically interests of First Nations peoples

A socio-economic study of Fort Chipewyan, the Peace Athabasca Delta and the Lake Athabasca region


Year: 1973

Abstract:
Within this broader Socio-economic study of the Peace-Athabasca Delta, the section on the economy includes some information on trapping, fishing, resource use, resource access, some Aboriginal communities, and subsistence harvesting, while a later section discusses the area's resource base, including human, fur, fish, forest, minerals, soil, wildlife, cultural and historical resources. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of low water levels on area resources and resource use. This is not a traditional land use or knowledge study, but there is information from a non-Aboriginal perspective on resource use from the early years of commercial development in Peace-Athabasca Delta.

A socio-economic study of Fort Chipewyan, the Peace-Athabasca Delta and the Lake Athabasca Region


Year: 1971

Abstract:
Study to counteract the adverse effects of low water levels, caused by the Bennett Dam, on the fur and fish economy of the Fort Chipewyan community. Includes population profile and relocation experience of community members. Discusses past and present economic patterns, such as trapping, fishing, forestry, mining & explorations, tourism, agriculture, including exploitation of those potentially beneficial activities. Indicates roles to be taken by private sector and government. Recommends socio-economic improvement through a combination of social assistance and development of employment, economic diversity and vocational opportunity.

A study of water and sediment quality as related to public health issues, Fort Chipewyan, Alberta


Author(s): Timoney, K. P.

Year: 2007

Abstract:
"This study examined water and sediment quality indicators in the area of Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. Data were analyzed and discussed in the contexts of water and sediment quality guidelines, wildlife contaminants, and ecosystem and public health.

A survey of the consumptive use of traditional resources in the community of Fort McKay


Year: 1997

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to provide background information needed to design an appropriate sampling strategy for use in a study to determine if there is reason for the community of Fort McKay to be concerned about the possibility that the plants and animals harvested for traditional use on their traditional lands may be accumulating trace metals. This study should not be confused with a major in-depth investigation to determine baseline conditions of trace and heavy metals in the flora and fauna of the area. It is only to provide a "snap-shot" of the current status of the accumulation, or lack thereof, of these metals in a selection of a few of the species of plants and animals which spend the bulk of their lives in the area, and which are most frequently eaten by the people of the Fort McKay community. This was accomplished through a questionnaire drafted by both Syncrude and the Fort McKay Community council, Elder and community interviews, along with group meetings. The results are provided within this document and include data analyses, tables, and maps of the general locations of data points. The conclusions and recommendations arising from this study indicate that the Fort McKay communities still rely on food resources harvested from their traditional lands. However, it was documented that there is widespread concern for potential contamination from industrial developments in the region and for the increasing non-traditional use of the region.

A vision of tarmageddon: The tar sands and our future


Author(s): Powless, B.

Year: 2012

Abstract:
A personal narrative is presented which explores the author's trip to Fort McMurray, Alberta to learn about indigenous communities.

Citation:

A voice on the land: An Indigenous peoples' guide to forest certification in Canada


Year: 2002

Abstract:
A handbook to assist Indigenous communities in working with the forestry industry, particularly companies seeking forest certification through the Forest Stewardship Council

Aboriginal community-based criteria and indicators: a localised approach


Author(s): Kopra, K., & Stevenson M. G.

Year: 2008

Abstract:
Research Notes No. 28. Criteria and indicators can be used to define and measure sustainable forest management objectives. Local criteria and indicators are most relevant when they are developed by the local communities, residents and stakeholders. Adaptable community-based frameworks are necessary for developing local level criteria and indicators. Local C and I approaches may be a particularly effective way of incorporating Aboriginal peoples in sustainable forest management.

Aboriginal consultation and accommodation: Interim guidelines for federal officials to fulfill the legal duty to consult


Year: 2008

Abstract:
The purpose of this government report is to "provide practical advice and direction to federal departments and agencies regarding the legal requirement for the Crown to consult with Aboriginal groups and, where appropriate, accommodate their interests." It presents pointers for determining where a legal basis for consultation exists, how to prepare for consultation, and how to ensure that the consultation is meaningful. The report authors aim to strike a balance between being overly prescriptive in their guidelines and leaving individual departments free to decide how best to consult. A driving objective is to advise a consultation approach "that reconciles the need for consistency … with the desired flexibility, responsibility and accountability." The guidelines are considered interim until the federal government develops a consultation policy. Following a brief presentation of the context for the guidelines and the principles employed for writing them, the report is divided into two main sections. The first provides information for managers, the second information for practitioners. A glossary of select terms and summaries of Haida Nation v. British Columbia, Taku River Tlingit First Nation v. British Columbia, Mikisew Cree First Nation v. Canada are buttressed between the two sections.

Aboriginal forest-based ecological knowledge in Canada


Author(s): Angus, M.

Year: 1996

Abstract:
This paper review the extent to which Aboriginal forest-based ecological knowledge is being used to influence current forest management practices presenting several case studies. These include the Cree, Dene and Metis of northeastern Alberta. All of these case studies illustrate processes for implementing TEK. Significant issues that need to be addresses include the potential impact of trade agreements, loss of TEK, traditional lands, language, and jurisdiction issues.

Citation:
Angus, M. (1996).  Aboriginal forest-based ecological knowledge in Canada. Connaissances des autochtones du Canada en ecologie forestiere . Abstract

Aboriginal forestry in Canada


Author(s): Parsons, R., & Prest G.

Year: 2003

Abstract:
Many factors influence forestry in Canada: one gaining prominence is the practice of Aboriginal forestry. Aboriginal forestry can be seen as sustainable forest land use practices that incorporate the cultural protocols of the past with interactions between the forest ecosystem and today's Aboriginal people for generations unborn.

Aboriginal peoples and knowledge: Decolonizing our process


Author(s): Simpson, L.

Year: 2001

Abstract:
The author suggests that Aboriginal scholars need to take control of theuses of.1raditiQuale.cologicaLknowledge (lEK). She suggests that, asAboriginal people heal, and develop new processes for their communities,T~!S. ~s leamed from_EI(je~.wiIlJ)~come more and.more important.

Aboriginal peoples and resource development in northern Alberta


Author(s): Ross, M. M.

Year: 2003

Abstract:
The intent of this report is to evaluate those forest-based Aboriginal communities in northern Alberta faced with intensifying resource development, while attempting to answer the key question: "To what extent are the rights, interests and values of Aboriginal people acknowledged, protected and accommodated in the provincial resource allocation and development process?" Divided into four main parts, the report covers a brief discussion of Aboriginal and Treaty rights as related to Treaty 8 Nations, an overview of the provincial government's policies and commitments regarding Aboriginals, an assessment of "the extent to which the legal and regulatory regime applicable to resource development accommodates the rights and interests of Aboriginal Peoples," and a case study of industry efforts to accommodate the rights and interests of Aboriginal communities affected by development. The report's author concludes by asserting that "the interests of all Canadians, including those of resource companies, would best be served by the resolve of both levels of governments to address squarely outstanding issues of Aboriginal and Treaty rights in the resource development process. Lack of political leadership … can only lead to mounting frustration on the part of all involved and exacerbate land and resource use conflicts."

Aboriginal perspectives on forest conservation: A report of the Aboriginal working group of the Alberta forest conservation strategy


Year: 1995

Abstract:
The purpose of this document is to organize and summarize the discussions occurring over three days of meetings of the Aboriginal Issues Working Group, in conjunction with the Alberta Forest Conservation Strategy (AFCS). The purpose of the AFCS is to provide a framework for the future management of all of Alberta's forests and all of the resources they contain. The primary objective is to consult with Albertans and develop recommendations for how to better manage Alberta's forests. Throughout this document, the AFCS identifies important Aboriginal issues and resolutions. Their direction incorporates the resource ethics of Alberta's Aboriginal peoples into the AFCS and tries to find ways to complement the Treaty rights of Aboriginal peoples with forest management in the province. Aboriginal framework issues discussed include honouring Aboriginal agreements and native values; consultation and decision-making; and cooperative management and co-management regarding forest management. This publication delves further into important Aboriginal issues including economic opportunities; Sagow Pematosowin; traditional uses and lifestyles; Aboriginal and Treaty rights; cultural and perceptual differences; enforcement; and individual community concerns. This document provides great insight to many issues facing Aboriginal communities today.

Aboriginal plant use in Canada's northwest Boreal Forest


Author(s): Marles, R. J.

Year: 2000

Abstract:
This handbook describes the traditional uses by aboriginal people of more than 200 different plants from Canada's boreal forest. It is the result of original ethnobotanical fieldwork in 29 communities across the boreal forest region of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Natural resources of the boreal forest have always been essential to the dietary, medical, economic, and spiritual well-being of First Nations

Aboriginal tourism: a research bibliography


Year: 2007

Abstract:
This bibliography provides 323 references to research on Aboriginal tourism in Canada and worldwide. It is meant to provide a source of essential readings on and related to Aboriginal tourism. During reference collection, a focus has been taken on the years from 1996 onward, therefore only a few, but essential readings from the period prior to 1996 will be found in the reference list. Searches were centered on keywords such as Aboriginal/Indigenous tourism, cultural tourism, ethnic tourism, heritage tourism and cultural heritage.

Aboriginal youth and elders gather, learn from each other


Author(s): Lusty, T.

Year: 2009

Abstract:
The 11th Annual Youth and Elders' Gathering of the Alberta Native Friendship Centres Association has laid claim to another successful round at the Palisades Centre in Jasper, Alberta. It is a time that youth and elders come together to share and learn from one another, in many instances on a one-to-one basis.

Access management alternatives on public lands


Year: 2004

Abstract:
The purpose of this report, which represents phase 1 of 3 of a larger body of work, was to present the results of a literature review of access management issues in the Green Area of public lands within the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo, and all relevant provincial legislation. This report does not contain traditional land use or knowledge per se, but the authors do examine literature that specifically references Aboriginal access issues and government responsibilities towards Aboriginals, in relation to access management, are also reviewed.

Accumulated state assessment of the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River system


Author(s): Dubé, M. G., & Wilson J. E.

Year: 2012

Abstract:
Effects-based analysis is a fundamental component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. This study conducted an effects-based analysis for the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River System, part of the massive Mackenzie River Basin, encompassing 20% of Canada's total land mass and influenced by cumulative contributions of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam (Peace River) and industrial activities including oil sands mining (Athabasca River). This study assessed seasonal changes in 1) Peace River water quality and quantity before and after dam development, 2) Athabasca River water quality and quantity before and after oil sands developments, 3) tributary inputs from the Peace and Athabasca Rivers to the Slave River, and 4) upstream to downstream differences in water quality in the Slave River. In addition, seasonal benchmarks were calculated for each river based on pre-perturbation post-perturbation data for future cumulative effects assessments. Winter discharge (January-March) from the Peace and Slave Rivers was significantly higher than before dam construction (pre-1967) ( p < 0.05), whereas summer peak flows (May-July) were significantly lower than before the dam showing that regulation has significantly altered seasonal flow regimes. During spring freshet and summer high flows, the Peace River strongly influenced the quality of the Slave River, as there were no significant differences in loadings of dissolved N, total P (TP), total organic C (TOC), total As, total Mn, total V, and turbidity and specific conductance between these rivers. In the Athabasca River, TP and specific conductance concentrations increased significantly since before oil sands developments (1967-2010), whereas dissolved N and sulfate have increased after the oil sands developments (1977-2010). Recently, the Athabasca River had significantly higher concentrations of dissolved N, TP, TOC, dissolved sulfate, specific conductance, and total Mn than either the Slave or the Peace Rivers during the winter months. The transboundary nature of the Peace, Athabasca, and Slave River basins has resulted in fragmented monitoring and reporting of the state of these rivers, and a more consistent monitoring framework is recommended. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2013;9:405-425. © 2012 SETAC

Accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River watershed: Part II quantitative effects-based analysis integrating western science and traditional ecological knowledge


Year: 2013

Abstract:
This article is the second in a 2-part series assessing the accumulated state of the transboundary Yukon River (YR) basin in northern Canada and the United States. The determination of accumulated state based on available long-term (LT) discharge and water quality data is the first step in watershed cumulative effect assessment in the absence of sufficient biological monitoring data. Long-term trends in water quantity and quality were determined and a benchmark against which to measure change was defined for 5 major reaches along the YR for nitrate, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC, respectively), total phosphate (TP), orthophosphate, pH, and specific conductivity. Deviations from the reference condition were identified as “hot moments” in time, nested within a reach. Significant increasing LT trends in discharge were found on the Canadian portion of the YR. There were significant LT decreases in nitrate, TOC, and TP at the Headwater reach, and significant increases in nitrate and specific conductivity at the Lower reach. Deviations from reference condition were found in all water quality variables but most notably during the ice-free period of the YR (May–Sept) and in the Lower reach. The greatest magnitudes of outliers were found during the spring freshet. This study also incorporated traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) into its assessment of accumulated state. In the summer of 2007 the YR Inter Tribal Watershed Council organized a team of people to paddle down the length of the YR as part of a “Healing Journey,” where both Western Science and TEK paradigms were used. Water quality data were continuously collected and stories were shared between the team and communities along the YR. Healing Journey data were compared to the LT reference conditions and showed the summer of 2007 was abnormal compared to the LT water quality. This study showed the importance of establishing a reference condition by reach and season for key indicators of water health to measure change, and the importance of placing synoptic surveys into context of LT accumulated state assessments. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2013;9:439–455. © 2013 SETAC

Akw?Kon: Voluntary guidelines for the conduct of cultural, environmental and social impact assessment regarding developments proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or u


Year: 2004

Abstract:
The Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement, ratified by Canada, that aims to achieve three main goals: "the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources." An important component of the Convention was the recognition of the interdependence of indigenous and local communities on biological resources, resulting in the undertaking of Article 8 (j), which advises that nations should "respect, preserve and maintain traditional knowledge relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and to promote its wider application." The Akw?Kon Voluntary Guidelines, which arose out of a working group engaged to promote the aims of Article 8 (j) of the Convention, are meant to provide guidance on incorporating cultural, environmental, and social considerations of indigenous and local communities into new or existing impact-assessment procedures. The guidelines are very general in nature and include: term definitions; procedural considerations; integration of cultural, environmental and social impact assessments into a single process; general considerations, such as gender, community development plans, legal obligations; and ways and means, such as capacity building and information exchange. More specifically, the guidelines recommend, for example, the involvement of potentially affected indigenous groups and local communities as early in the process as the screening/scoping phase, including the drafting of any terms of reference for conducting impact assessments. The guidelines also assert the desirability of conducting baseline studies in cooperation with indigenous communities, as well as the importance of "full and effective" indigenous community participation during the conduct of impact assessments, including decision-making. There are also recommendations on what should be considered in determining the scope of assessments and baseline studies and the preferred methodology.

Alberta Aboriginals file court challenge to province's system of oilsands leasing


Author(s): Weber, B.

Year: 2009

Abstract:
An Aboriginal band has threatened the very basis of Alberta's oil sands industry by filing a court challenge to the province's system of granting land tenure. A notice filed December 10th in Edmonton Court of Queen's Bench by the Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation claims that a series of oil sands permits the provincial government sold to Shell Canada and other companies are invalid. Selling off rights to explore the land without consulting area Aboriginals breached the Crown's duty to consult, say legal documents prepared by the First Nation.

Alberta First Nation gets anti-oilsands help from U.K. co-op.


Author(s): Pratap, V.

Year: 2009

Abstract:
The community said its members' rights to continue hunting, trapping and fishing for their livelihood were also included in the 1876 treaty, but that these rights will be compromised by the planned oil sands developments.

Alberta First Nations consultation & accommodation handbook


Year: 2014

Abstract:
In recent years, the relationship between the Alberta government and the First Nations has become increasingly acrimonious. The media regularly report the negative reactions of First Nations communities to government policies and initiatives and their concerns with the impacts of resource development on their communities, notably their health and way of life. The multiplication of legal challenges to resource development in the province is attributed to increasing frustrations among First Nations with the lack of meaningful input into government policy and decision-making processes on land and resource development. This report explores some of the reasons for this deteriorating relationship between Alberta First Nations and the provincial government. We focus on the issue of Aboriginal consultation and accommodation, which is one of the most contentious in that relationship. Alberta first released a First Nations Consultation Policy in 2005. It was the government’s first attempt to fulfill its obligations to First Nations under the duty to consult and accommodate doctrine. On August 16, 2013, this Policy was replaced with The Government of Alberta’s Policy on Consultation with First Nations on Land and Natural Resource Management, 2013. As was the case with the 2005 Policy, the initial reactions of Alberta’s First Nations to this updated Policy have been mostly negative. The first part of the report examines the relevant legal framework of Aboriginal consultation and accommodation, at both the domestic and the international levels. The second part focuses on Alberta’s approach to consultation and discusses both the process of developing the 2013 Policy and the Policy itself. The third part of the report is a critical analysis of Alberta’s approach to Aboriginal consultation, from the formulation of the 2013 Policy to the Policy itself. It focuses on the new Aboriginal Consultation Office and reviews two legislative initiatives that directly affect the consultation process. It offers suggestions for best consultation practices, based on the First Nations’ advice to government and on a comparative analysis of consultation policies in other jurisdictions.

Alberta government drops charges against Metis man for hunting moose


Author(s): Chiang, C.

Year: 2008

Abstract:
Janvier says he was charged by an Alberta sustainable resources officer for hunting a moose in 2005 while travelling from his home town to Fort McMurray.

Alberta historical review [Canada]


Author(s): Drouin, E. O.

Year: 1963

Abstract:
This is the story of an attempt to found a farming colony for the Métis people and persuade them to abandon nomadic ways and adopt a sedentary lifestyle.

Alberta Metis celebrate Ontario ruling on hunting rights and organize Metis hunt in Alberta


Author(s): Anonymous

Year: 2001

Abstract:
Alberta Metis and their leaders are celebrating confirmation of their Aboriginalhunting rights by the Ontario Court of Appeal. The Metis say they plan to exercise those rights by organizing a traditional Metis hunt as soon as possible. At a meeting of the Zone 1 Regional Council of the Metis Nation of Alberta this past weekend in Fort McMurray, a decision was made to take immediate action on practicing the Metis constitutional right to harvest. (Zone 1 covers the area of Alberta from Athabasca and Lac La Biche east to the Saskatchewan border, and north to the Northwest Territories, including Fort McMurray and Fort Chipewyan.). The Zone 1 Regional Council has designated Blyan-Calliou to assist and speak for them, in immediately establishing a dialogue with appropriate government officials to ensure that the recognition of Metis hunting rights is established as smoothly as possible, and that the Metis practice of those rights occurs in an orderly fashion.

Alberta oil sands development and risk management of Canadian Boreal Ecosystems


Author(s): Carlson, M., & Stelfox B. J.

Year: 2014

Abstract:
The vast majority of Alberta’s oil sands are yet to be developed due to the high cost of production, but declining conventional reserves will create high pressure to develop the resource. Simulation of the potential future effects of accelerated oil sands development demonstrates that associated increases in landscape disturbance, human access, and industrial activity would increase GHG emissions and elevate risk to fish and wildlife. These impacts can be reduced but not avoided by improving management practices and limiting non‐industrial access. Expansion of the protected areas network is an additional mechanism to reduce environmental risk, and the aggregated distribution of bitumen deposits provides opportunities for cost–effective protection. The greatest land‐use planning challenge presented by the oil sands is environmental values that are in direct conflict with oil sands production such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions or conserving wildlife such as caribou whose distribution overlaps bitumen deposits. A land use plan has been developed for the region with the objective of optimizing the economic potential of the oil sands while also maintaining ecosystem function, biodiversity, and human health. If the land use plan is implemented in its entirety, including the establishment of thresholds to limit land use within bounds of ecological integrity, it may provide a model for sustainable development of hydrocarbon reserves.

Citation:

Alberta oil sands: Energy, industry and the environment


Author(s): Percy, K. E.

Year: 2012

Abstract:
At 170 billion barrels, Canada's Oil Sands are the third largest reserves of developable oil in the world. The Oil Sands now produce about 1.6 million barrels per day, with production expected to double by 2025 to about 3.7 million barrels per day. The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta is the largest of the three oil sands deposits. Bitumen in the oil sands is recovered through one of two primary methods - mining and drilling. About 20 per cent of the reserves are close to the surface and can be mined using large shovels and trucks. Of concern are the effects of the industrial development on the environment. Both human-made and natural sources emit oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, trace elements and persistent organic compounds. Of additional concern are ground level ozone and greenhouse gases. Because of the requirement on operators to comply with the air quality regulatory policies, and to address public concerns, the not-for-profit, multi-stakeholder Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) has since 1997 been closely monitoring air quality in AOSR. In 2008, WBEA assembled a distinguished group of international scientists who have been conducting measurements and practical research on various aspects of air emissions and their potential effects on terrestrial receptors. This book is a synthesis of the concepts and results of those on-going studies. It contains 19 chapters ranging from a global perspective of energy production, measurement methodologies and behavior of various air pollutants during fossil fuel production in a boreal forest ecosystem, towards designing and deploying a multi-disciplinary, proactive, and long-term environmental monitoring system that will also meet regulatory expectations. Covers measurement of emissions from very large industrial sources in a region with huge international media profileValidation of measurement technologies can be applied globally. The new approaches to ecological monitoring described can be applied in other forested regions.

Alberta woodland caribou recovery research and monitoring program to support sustainable forest management


Year: 2014

Abstract:
The intent of the study was to test the hypothesis that wolf occurrence is higher in caribou ranges with more industrial disturbance, provide data for scenario modelling that examines how wolf–caribou predator–prey relationships are predicted to change based on future timber harvest and energy projections, and to provide baseline data for the long-term objective of conducting a province-wide adaptive management experiment that tests the response of caribou and wolf populations to different management options. The probability of wolf occurrence was measured in and around a total of five landscape planning areas that encompassed a total of 17 individual caribou ranges. Blocks were randomly selected and surveyed for the presence of wolves or wolf tracks. Aerial surveys for white-tailed deer were also conducted. Analysis suggests that wolf abundance is comparatively high in those ranges that have high levels of human disturbance. Because deer are now the primary prey of wolves in the system, declines in deer abundance could alter the dynamics between wolves and their multiple prey species. Preliminary results suggest that caribou populations might face a threat when wolves switch prey following a decline in deer numbers.

Alberta's First Nations consultation guidelines on land management and resource development


Year: 2007

Abstract:
These government-issued guidelines, intended for First Nations, project proponents, and government representatives, were issued to complement the policy (Government of Alberta's First Nations Consultation Policy on Land Management and Resource Development) adopted on May 16, 2005 and are consistent with the current state of the law on consultation. The policy commits the provincial government to consultation with First Nations where land management and resource development may adversely impact First Nations rights and traditional uses of Crown lands. It should be noted that development of these guidelines remains ongoing; new updates will be issued. The guidelines are divided into two sections: the first outlines the general components of consultation, including the role of the Crown and proponents, the response of First Nations, and a definition of "adequate consultation"; the second outlines the specific guidelines for each provincial government department, including Alberta Energy, Alberta Environment, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, and Alberta Tourism, Parks, Recreation and Culture. The two appendices included are the actual policy driving the guidelines and the framework for devising the guidelines.

Alberta, Shell try to quash Aboriginal challenge to oilsands leases


Author(s): Weber, B.

Year: 2009

Abstract:
The Alberta government and Shell Canada were in court September 1st trying to quash an Aboriginal band's attempt to halt oil sands development on traditional lands.

All's quiet as the buffalo roam (plight of diseased Wood Buffalo National Park's bison)


Year: 1995

Abstract:
The WBMB's report, submitted early in 1993, recommended the maintenance of a buffer zone around Wood Buffalo to prevent the spread of the diseases to other bison herds and domestic cattle outside the park. It also called for a comprehensive ecological and traditional research program to address knowledge gaps, and a review and selection of the best techniques for screening diseased bison to assess their status. In addition, board members suggested a comprehensive ecological research program--including implications of the Bennett Dam on bison habitat, and potential impacts of bison management on predator/prey relations. It viewed these actions as central to an informed resolution of the bison issue, and the maintenance of the ecological integrity of Wood Buffalo National Park.

Alta. oilsands pond sludge oozes into bush


Year: 2010

Abstract:
A northern Alberta tailings pond appears to have toxic sludge flowing into the muskeg from an uncontained western edge, a situation uncovered by a CBC News investigation.

Always with them either a feast or a famine: Living off the land with Chipewyan Indians, 1791-1792


Author(s): Helm, J.

Year: 1993

Abstract:
In this paper, Helm estimates the food and calorie intake of 18th-century Chipewyans based on the detailed journal kept by the trader Peter Fidler. Fidler traveled with a party of Chipewyans between Great Slave Lake and Lake Athabasca, from September 4, 1791 to April 10, 1792. He recorded in his journal the daily number of animals killed and consumed. Helm is left to estimate the size, consumable tissue, leanness, and calories of the animals. She also has to estimate the size of the traveling party, which changes as they meet and travel with other groups. She concludes that the average daily intake for members of the traveling party was 6.15-6.89 lbs., or 5140-5780 kcal per person.

Amendment application Petro-Canada MacKay River expansion phase ii


Year: 2005

Abstract:
The objective of this traditional land use study was to identify and document the traditional lands of Fort McKay First Nation (FMFN) and to preserve the knowledge of Elders and ancestors for future generations as well as acknowledging that FMFN is seeing a dramatic impact upon their traditional way of life as a result from industrial development along the Mackay River. This study provides a historical explanation of the relationship between the Cree and Chipewyan peoples including past conflicts and peace agreements. These are elements in the baseline study for the TLU. A large portion of the baseline study centres on the impacts felt by Registered Fur Management Areas (RFMAs) with information procured from literature reviews and interviews on the historical and current traditional land use in the region and the effects upon these from industrial development. FMFN give a long list of concerns regarding environmental degradation, and changing lifeways resulting from changes on the land and within economies. Numerous recommendations are made.

American Indian medicine


Author(s): Vogel, V. J.

Year: 1970

Abstract:
No other work has ever assumed the scope of this study of the botanical ingredients of Amerind medicine in what has been called rational therapy.

An account of the animals useful in an economic point of view to the various Chipewyan tribes


Author(s): Ross, B. R.

Year: 1861

Abstract:
Gives animals, range and uses which Indians make of them. Also includes list of species of mammals and birds collected in MacKenzie river district from June 1860 to April 1861.

An account of the botanical and mineral products useful to the Chipewyan tribes of Indians inhabiting the Mackenzie River district


Author(s): Ross, B. R.

Year: 1862

Abstract:
A paper read before the Natural History Society of Montreal. In addition to describing the plants, trees and minerals used by these Indians, a legend on the origin of fire is included.

An assessment of coping with environmental hazards in northern Aboriginal communities


Author(s): Newton, J.

Year: 1995

Abstract:
This document is part of a special issue on geographical perspectives on Aboriginal peoples in Canada. A study was conducted to improve understanding about how communities handle flood hazards through an evaluation of the complex integration of traditional knowledge, community evolution, and modern technologies. Field investigations were conducted in northern aboriginal communities. The results confirm the crucial value of local environmental knowledge, identify the effect of changing social structures on community vulnerability, and stress the jurisdictionally integrated character of disaster response. It is concluded that research must recognize and value the contribution of aboriginal knowledge and incorporate it in all cross-cultural projects in order to improve the understanding of the interconnections between people and place. A bibliography and map are provided.

An Athapaskan way of knowing: Chipewyan ontology


Author(s): Smith, D. M.

Year: 1998

Abstract:
The ontology of those Canadian Chipewyan who still actively hunt, fish, and trap is based on the assumption that one must maintain a harmonious communication with nature, especially with animal persons. To this end, emphasis is placed on paying attention to the full complement of holistically interacting senses, giving more attention to the intuitive and affective realms than is typical for Euro-American ontologies. No single sensorium dominates metaphorically; greatest validity is given to firsthand, experiential knowledge attained in waking life or in dreams, with the powerful stories of the elders serving as guides to understanding. Chipewyan thought is monistic?here are no human/nature, mind/body, thought/action, or spirit/matter dualisms. There is a definite cognitive connection among the inseparability of the senses, an implicit monistic philosophy, the understanding that individual can never be separate from society, social egalitarianism, and the belief in the need for maintaining harmonious communication with animal persons. [Chipewyan, ontology, perception, inkonze, monism]

An ethnoarchaeological approach to Chipewyan adaptations in the late fur trade period


Year: 1982

Abstract:
A general research strategy for investigating the processes by which Chipewyan, Cree, Metis, and European populations adapted to the natural environment, to the EuroCanadian-organized fur trade economy, and to each other as competing/cooperating social groups in northcentral Canada is developed. An interpretive framework links local ecological relations with fur trade specialization and the nature of intergroup behavior and communication. The data base for assessing this framework was retrieved by a methodology combining participant and ethnoarchaeological observation of ongoing behavior with archaeological documentation of late historic sites. Special attention is given to the economic and social position of Chipewyan families in outpost and bush communities in northwestern Saskatchewan between 1890 and 1950.

An examination of the cumulative effects of oil sand development on the traditional lands and resources used by the people of Fort MacKay


Year: 1998

Abstract:
There were four objectives set out for this cumulative effects study. The first was to delineate the extent of the Traditional Lands of the People of the community of Fort McKay. Second, was to outline the amount of surface disturbance, which has taken place (and is being planned for) on the Traditional Lands of Fort McKay. The third objective noted in this study is to calculate in a relatively gross and simple fashion, what the standing crops of a few species of fish, wildlife and plants most commonly used by community members might have been available for harvest from this area before it was disturbed. This was done using survey data from a variety of industry and government agencies. The fourth objective was to calculate how much of this standing crop falls into the category of "foregone opportunity" for the people of Fort McKay, what the dollar value of this foregone opportunity would add up to over the years between 1965 and 1998 and extrapolate the value on what these foregone opportunities will represent by the year 2050. These objectives were met through discussions with Elders and other community members; by canvassing government and industry and reviewing literature to determine annual wildlife and fish population levels throughout the area, and in particular, those which might have existed on the lands which have been, and are about to be disturbed; by determining the standing crop of fish and wildlife for the period of time covering surface disturbance, using the information derived from the completion of the third objective; and by producing a series of overlay maps covering the Fort McKay Traditional Resource Use Area. This series includes all oil sands mines and leases, forestry operations, cities, towns, seismic work and any other surface disturbances which have occurred (and which have not been reclaimed) from about 1965 to the present, and which are located on what has been defined as Fort McKay Traditional Land. This report and the maps provided clearly demonstrate that the changes in the making are severe, and the rate at which the amount of disturbance is multiplying is exponential.

An examination of the use of image in traditional knowledge research with Northwestern Canadian First Nations'.


Author(s): Johnson, L.

Year: Submitted

Abstract:
My presentation was well received. Other presenters in the session I presented in were from the University of Alberta, and two universities in Brazil. My presentation complemented others, representing a different facet of visual anhropology. After our session, I attended symposia on a variety of topics and was able to establish connections with other Northern researchers as well as have productive discussions with colleagues about research, and about my book projects. One of the sessions in particular was very relevant to my book project, and I’ve asked the organizer for copies of two very recent papers she has authored. I attended the CASCA women’s network lunch and meeting, and the Annual General Meeting of the society. I also arranged to meet one of my former MAIS students (Zoe Dalton) who completed her masters projects under my supervision; she is now a doctoral student in geography at the U of T. It was a very productive meeting.; Recording of images and words has been integral to the documentation of the knowledge and wisdom of traditional land-based lifeways. Although recording of film images and video has been widely employed in traditional knowledge research, work that questions of how the images are used and 'read' is largely lacking. I offer a reflexive examination of my own practice of documentation traditional knowledge of northwestern Canadian First Nations through film and video, and briefly review others’ use of image in recording and reporting traditional knowledge and related areas of culture and language retention. Academic & Professional Development Fund (A&PDF)

An introduction to the use of publicly available information in assessing and managing Aboriginal risks


Year: 2005

Abstract:
Over the past 15 years, the risk that a government may failto meet its obligations to First Nations with respect to exploration and development activities, has become a significant risk for oil and gas companies.

An oil sands critic with a louder voice; Desmond Tutu's tour of Fort McMurray brings international eyes to First Nations' fight against production.


Year: 2014

Abstract:
FORT MCMURRAY, ALTA. – First the Athabasca Chipewyan partnered with Canadian rocker Neil Young in a treaty rights awareness tour. Then, this past weekend, the 1,100-person northern Alberta [...]

Ancestral knowledges, spirituality and Indigenous narratives as self-determination.


Author(s): Neeganagwedgin, E.

Year: 2013

Abstract:
Indigenous knowledge systems and spiritual traditions are intricately interwoven. They sustained First Nations peoples for centuries, are part of the everyday lives of Indigenous peoples and are at the core of Indigenous epistemologies. This paper argues that, despite the adverse impacts of Canada's colonial policies on Indigenous peoples, their ancestral knowledge systems and spirituality guide and nourish them as they navigate their way through contemporary educational and everyday life contexts. I specifically examine how several Indigenous women, many of whom experienced systemic discrimination, use spirituality to cope with and overcome everyday lived oppression. Their narratives form the basis of the analysis. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Citation:
Neeganagwedgin, E. (2013).  Ancestral knowledges, spirituality and Indigenous narratives as self-determination.. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples. 9, 322 - 334. Abstract

Annotated bibliography: Prehistoric and protohistoric occupation of northern Alberta volumes i - iii


Year: 1983

Abstract:
This massive document contains 114 articles from the anthropological and archaeological fields relating long history of the Cree peoples in Northern Alberta.

Anpernirrentye: A framework for enhanced application of Indigenous ecological knowledge in natural resource management


Year: 2013

Abstract:
Robust approaches to natural resource management (NRM) in indigenous cross-cultural contexts require coherent understandings of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK) systems. We synthesize a framework to represent the traditionally derived worldview of Arrernte Aboriginal people within which IEK is embedded. This is an ecology-focused worldview with three interrelated domains of knowledge that are intricately linked, comprising many complex dynamic elements that interact with each other. This worldview is from desert Australia but is relevant to those working in complex cross-cultural environments across Australia and internationally. The visual framework presented fills an important conceptual gap in IEK documentation being positioned at a mesoconceptual scale. Comparisons between this knowledge framework and social--ecological systems theory indicate similarities in systems thinking, in explicit links between people and ecology, and in the emphasis on processes and relationships through causal loops and feedbacks. Important differences lie in the inextricable integration of economic and spiritual domains in the Arrernte worldview. In Arrernte eyes, interrelationships between people, resource species, land, and spiritual domains are central to NRM. Scientific approaches commonly overlook or segregate elements of indigenous knowledge. The multiple values indigenous people attribute to species are often ignored or overridden, which contributes to decoupling within their knowledge system. Western scientists and natural resource managers are looking for better understandings of indigenous knowledge systems. The framework offers a tool that can be applied to both cross-cultural and intergenerational learning to improve NRM and people's well-being and sense of self. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Appendix 3.8: Traditional land use environmental setting report update


Year: 2013

Abstract:
The purpose of this Traditional Land Use (TLU) Environmental Setting Report (ESR) is to summarize TLU information relating to Shell Canada Energy’s (Shell’s) Pierre River Mine (PRM) Project that has become available since the Jackpine Mine Expansion and Pierre River Mine Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was submitted in 2007. Information sources used to prepare the ESR are listed in Section 1.2. When preparing a concise review based on multiple, lengthy literature sources, it may be necessary to paraphrase, summarize and interpret TLU information from the source material. Due to this practical limitation, it is recommended that the Joint Review Panel, and other reviewers, further examine the referenced source material in its entirety to have a fulsome perspective of the TLU information provided in those documents.

Application for approval and environmental impact assessment for the Muskeg River Mine Project . Volume 3a, section e traditional land use


Year: 1998

Abstract:
Within this section of the Muskeg River Mine Project, identification of the potential impacts of the project on current land uses; and identification of possible resource use mitigative strategies are addressed. Discussions on the regional implications of oil sands development on traditional land use are presented in Sections F15; while Section D15 provides details on the traditional land use baseline for the Project. A comprehensive program of studies that examines traditional land use issues for the region surrounding the Muskeg River Mine Project began as a result of this EIA. This report is considered to be part of the on-going consultation process and was not completed at the time of this study. Nevertheless, it does provide both general and specific information relating to the traditional uses of the immediate Project area in order to obtain an indication of the types of traditional land use practices that have occurred here in the past and continue to take place. This information serves as a basis for determining the specific impacts of the project and can be incorporated with regional level information to obtain an indication of the combined effects of developments planned throughout the region. To obtain a general impression of the types of resources that were incorporated in the traditional "bush economy" of First Nations peoples of the area, a review was conducted by the Fort McKay First Nations of the regional level traditional land use investigations in 1994. This information was supplemented by data accumulated in specific traditional land use studies completed for the Syncrude Aurora Project by the Fort McKay Environmental Services in 1996 and 1997. By consolidating information presented in those studies, a table was created identifying plant and animal species that were mentioned as being of use in the traditional lifestyle of this area. Rankings of high, medium and low were given to individual species based upon the number of times a particular species name was referred to and the number of times a species was indicated within a given region on the traditional land use maps or tables that accompany the studies. Not all plant and animals species that would be used were mentioned in the interviews conducted for this program. Only the names of the most common plants and animals used by First Nations people were provided here. Overall, the information provided in this study in terms of both regional use patterns and the specific species currently present within the project area, suggest that development of the Muskeg River Mine Project will certainly have a negative impact on Traditional Land Use throughout the area.

Application for approval of the Jackpine Mine phase 1, volume 4: Traditional land use assessment


Year: 2002

Abstract:
This section of the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Shell Canada Limited Jackpine Mine Phase 1 provides information on traditional land use as required by the Project Terms of Reference (AENV 2002). The potential impacts to traditional land users were evaluated based on an understanding of how aboriginal peoples have used and continue to use the land and resources within the area. The Regional Study Area was defined as the total traditional territory of the Fort McKay First Nation, which includes Chipewyan and Cree Treaty Indians, Métis and non-status Indians who live in Fort McKay. The RSA was defined using the latest available information on the areas in which the traditional livelihoods of the Fort McKay peoples depended. This information modifies the area that had previously been depicted as the Fort McKay traditional territory, as defined in "From Where We Stand". The Local Study Area was defined based on consideration of trapline boundaries and the boundaries of the Project. From the perspective of evaluation of effects to traditional land use for this EIA, traplines provide the most appropriate basis for defining LSA, since most traditional activities in this area are carried out on traplines. The traditional land use assessment is divided into six main sections: Scope of Assessment, Conclusions, Environmental Setting Summary, Baseline Case, Application Case, and the Planned Development Case. The EIA terms of reference include requirements for assessment of the potential effects of the project on traditional land use including explaining the significance of land use changes for maintenance of traditional lifestyles; the process for addressing traditional users such as trappers; providing details of Shell's consultation with Aboriginal groups to determine the effects on traditional use of the Local Study Area; documenting any stakeholder concerns regarding the impact of the Project on the historical significance of the Study Areas and its current use by traditional users; identifying the existing and historical land users, including fishing, hunting, traditional plant harvesting, and cultural use, with specific regard given to the Aboriginal peoples and determining the impact of development on these uses and identifying possible mitigation strategies.