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Lesser Slave River No.124 AB
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A bibliography of the Athabasca oil sands Fort McMurray Alberta area: Socio-economic and environmental studies. 1980 cumulated update


Author(s): Sanford, C.

Year: 1980

Abstract:
This is the fifth cumulated update of' a bibliography originally prepared in early 1974 at the request of Dr. S. B. Smith, who was at that time Chairman of the Research Secretariat, Alberta Department of the Environment, and who is presently Director of the Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program. The objective of the bibliography is to provide a comprehensive listing of reports relating to the socio-economic and environmental aspects of the development of the Athabasca oil Sands. Major reports and some articles on the other oil sands areas of Alberta - Cold Lake, Peace River and Wabasca - are also included. This edition, which includes journal articles received up to the end of September 1979 and reports received prior to November 1979 by the Alberta Environment Library, contains references to about 1,900 items. In addition to listing materials published since the previous edition, it also includes references to earlier items on the history of the development of the Alberta Oil Sands and on the environmental and socio-economic implications of this development. These were located by using the Alberta oil Sands Index and Oil Shales and Tar Sands: A Bibliography. These bibliographies are cited in section I. Several modifications have been made to the organization of the bibliography. Items in the \"General Background References\" section are now arranged chronologically. The \"Economic Aspects\" and \"Industry and Resources Development\" sections under \"Socio-Economic Studies, Fort McMurray Area\" have been merged. The \"Manpower and Employment\" section formerly under the \"New Town of Fort McMurray\" has become a sub-heading of the \"Fort McMurray Area\" section. The \"Ecology/Environment\" section has been moved to become the first section of the \"Environmental Studies\" section. Separate sections have been established for items pertaining to the Cold Lake, Peace River and Wabasca Oil Sands. The Cold Lake and Peace River sections have also been further subdivided to bring articles on the same topic together. Please note that the “Geology” section contains only very selective references. Also, the \"Historical Background Material” section includes a selective listing of early Geological Survey of Canada reports and other early studies. These items give a general description of the area including topography and climate, as well as the hydrological and geographical features. References are only cited once, e.g. if an item deals with both air and water pollution, it could be located in either “Air Pollution General” or “Water Quality and Pollution” , depending on which subject area has received the greatest emphasis. Title entries have not been made for items listed in the \"Application by Industry to the Government of Alberta\" sections. An asterisk beside a title in the title index indicates that the report is held by the Alberta Environment Library. Because journals are readily available, it was felt unnecessary to extend this marking to include journal articles.

A fisheries and water quality survey of ten lakes in the Richardson Tower area northeastern Alberta. Volume I: Methodology summary and discussion


Author(s): Ash, G. R., & Noton L. R.

Year: 1980

Abstract:
A fisheries and water quality survey was conducted in September 1979 on 10 small lakes (67.4 to 338.9 ha) in the vicinity of Richardson Tower, approximately 140 km north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. The major objectives were: (1) to determine morphometric and water quality characteristics in relation to habitat requirements for indigenous and possible introduced species of fish; (2) to assess potential fish yield; and (3) to determine the susceptibility of the lakes to acidification. Maximum lake depth ranged from 6 to 16 m; mean depth varied from 1.9 to 8.0 m. Morphoedaphic indices varied from 16.7 to 54.3. Water quality was fairly uniform with moderate concentrations of dissolved sol ids total filterable residue slightly above 100 mg/L), calcium and bicarbonate at the major ions, and low phosphorus levels. Waters were clear, largely unstained, and generally well oxygenated. Water quality in most lakes was highly suitable for fish production. Ten species of fish were recorded. All lakes supported northern pike while only five contained walleye. Lake whitefish was present in all but one lake. Yellow perch, although recorded in seven of the lakes, were slow growing and small in size. Estimates of potential fish yield varied from 4.8 to 6.5 kg/ha/yr to 8.2 to 10.9 kg/ha/yr. Mean total alkalinity of the study lakes was 77 mg/L (1.53 meq/L). Although terrestrial buffering responses were uncertain, it appeared that lakes are not highly susceptible to acidification (i.e., at precipitation acidities foreseeable for the study area).

A fisheries and water quality survey of ten lakes in the Richardson Tower area Northeastern Alberta. Volume II: Data


Author(s): Ash, G. R., & Noton L. R.

Year: 1980

Abstract:
A fisheries and water quality survey was conducted in September 1979 on 10 small lakes (67.4 to 338.9 hal in the vicinity of Richardson Tower, approximately 140 km north of Fort McMurray, Alberta). The major objectives were: (1) to determine morphometric and water quality characteristics in relation to habitat requirements for indigenous and possible introduced species of fish; (2) to assess potential fish yield; and (3) to determine the susceptibility of the lakes to acidification. This information is contained in Volume I. Volume I I contains all data collected for this study.

A lower crustal perspective on the stabilization and reactivation of continental lithosphere in the western Canadian shield


Author(s): Flowers, R. M.

Year: 2005

Abstract:
New geochronological, thermochronological, geological and isotopic data from an extensive (> 20,000 km²) exposure of high-pressure granulites (0.8 to > 1.5 GPa, >750 ⁰C) in the East Lake Athabasca region of the Snowbird tectonic zone provide important constraints on the stabilization, reactivation and exhumation of continental lithosphere in the western Canadian Shield. The exhumed lower crust of this craton comprises several disparate domains that preserve a complex record of tectonic, magmatic and metamorphic processes from formation to exhumation. U-Pb zircon geochronology documents two episodes of metamorphic zircon growth at 2.55 Ga and 1.9 Ga, linked with two high-pressure granulite facies assemblages preserved in Chipman domain mafic granulites. The intervening 650 m.y. of relative quiescence implies a period of lithospheric stability during which the granulites continued to reside in the deep crust. Disruption of the stable Archean craton at 1.9 Ga broadly coincides with the assembly of the Laurentian supercontinent. The correlation of 1.9 Ga mafic magmatism and metamorphism in the Chipman domain with contemporaneous mafic magmatism along > 1200 km strike-length of the Snowbird tectonic zone indicates that regional asthenospheric upwelling was an important aspect of this reactivation event. (cont.) UL-Pb (titanite, apatite, rutile), ⁴⁰Ar/³⁹Ar (hornblende, muscovite, apatite) and (U-Th)/He (zircon, apatite) thermochronometry documents the cooling history of domains in the East Lake Athabasca region during the 200 m.y. multistage history of unroofing following 1.9 Ga metamorphism. Linkage of reconstructed temperature-time histories with existing pressure-temperature-deformation paths reveals spatial and temporal heterogeneity in exhumation patterns, with domain juxtaposition during episodes of unroofing separated by intervals of crustal residence. Low temperature (U-Th)/He zircon and apatite dates are the oldest reported for terrestrial rocks, and confirm the protracted residence of rocks at shallow (< [or equal to] 2 km) crustal depths following the re-attainment of a stable lithospheric configuration in the western Canadian shield at ca. 1.7 Ga. by Rebecca M. Flowers. Thesis (Sc. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, 2005. "September 2005." Includes bibliographical references.

Accumulation of fish mixed function oxygenase inducers by semipermeable membrane devices in river water and effluents, Athabasca River, August and September 1994


Year: 1996

Abstract:
Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) were deployed for 2 weeks in waters ofthe Athabasca and Lesser Slave Rivers and in four pulp mill effluents and wastewater from one oil sands mining and upgrading facility. Success of recovery of the SPMDs was 66 %, with loss caused by high water velocity and shifting channels and sediments. SPMD extracts accumulated chemicals that induced mixed function oxygenase (MFO) in a fish cell line. For expressing the potency of SPMD extracts as inducers in fish cells, MFO induction in cells exposed to SPMD extracts was compared to MFO induction in cells exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD). This does not imply that the SPMD extracts contained TCDD or any other dioxin or furan, only that the extracts contained chemicals that were equivalent in MFO-inducing potency to a certain amount of TCDD. MFO induction was expressed as "EROD potency equivalents in pg/g". Extracts of SPMDs from pulp mills were two to five times as potent as extracts of SPMDs exposed to background river water. SPMD extracts from three of the four pulp mill effluents tested (Weldwood, Alberta Newsprint and Slave Lake Pulp) had 62.0, 53.5, and 29.7 pg EROD potency-EQ/g, respectively, significantly more than in Athabasca River water (12.6 pg EROD potency-EQ/g = "background"). SPMDs exposed to effluent from Millar Western (23.0 pg EROD potency-EQ/g) had potencies within the 95 % confidence interval o f background. The levels of MFO induction in SPMDs exposed to river water increased downstream of Fort McMurray. In this area, SPMDs accumulated inducers from the river at levels ranging from 58.5 to 728 pg EROD potency-EQ/g. SPMD accumulation was highly variable, which indicated an unknown source of inducers, possibly an effluent from the town or input from natural erosion of the oil sands. SPMDs deployed in effluent from Suncor accumulated the most MFO-inducing chemicals (16,800 pg EROD potency-EQ/g), with induction potency over 20 x that of SPMDs from river water upstream of Suncor. Although this study was preliminary, the results indicated that SPMDs from the four pulp mill effluents contained small quantities of MFO inducers. Compared to MFO induction by extracts of SPMDs deployed in two Ontario bleached kraft mill effluents, the pulp mill effluents from the Athabasca River were one third to one twentieth as potent. By contrast, very high quantities of MFO inducers were accumulated from Suncor effluents. SPMDs deployed in Athabasca River waters downstream of Fort McMurray also contained inducers, indicating some unknown anthropogenic or natural source in this area.

Aesthetics for mine closure


Year: 2011

Abstract:
There have been several historic attempts to quantify the aesthetics of natural landscapes, and many mines around the world are building reclaimed landscapes with a focus on visual appeal and/or natural appearance. There have been arguments made that form and function are closely linked, and hence mining landscapes should be fashioned to look natural; to look as though they have been the product of geomorphic change similar to that experienced over thousands or millions of years by the surrounding natural landscape, while some argue that aesthetic reclamation should be done for purely aesthetic purposes. Still others argue that preserving some of the historic / industrial features of a mining landscape is an important way of connecting humans to the land and its history, and hence preservation of historical resources can be an important element of mine reclamation. Our paper explores the interaction of these various concepts, ideas, and philosophies, and presents examples of bringing aesthetic considerations into landform design for mine closure. It offers qualitative and semi- quantitative measures to design, construct, and evaluate aesthetics and natural appearance in mine closure, and offers a scorecard that may form a starting point for constructive dialogue.

Always with them either a feast or a famine: Living off the land with Chipewyan Indians, 1791-1792


Author(s): Helm, J.

Year: 1993

Abstract:
In this paper, Helm estimates the food and calorie intake of 18th-century Chipewyans based on the detailed journal kept by the trader Peter Fidler. Fidler traveled with a party of Chipewyans between Great Slave Lake and Lake Athabasca, from September 4, 1791 to April 10, 1792. He recorded in his journal the daily number of animals killed and consumed. Helm is left to estimate the size, consumable tissue, leanness, and calories of the animals. She also has to estimate the size of the traveling party, which changes as they meet and travel with other groups. She concludes that the average daily intake for members of the traveling party was 6.15-6.89 lbs., or 5140-5780 kcal per person.

Athabasca: A river changes; Fort Chipewyan's elders recall when water was pure


Author(s): Brooymans, H.

Year: 2010

Abstract:
[...] it affected flows in the Peace River. ***** The Journal's Hanneke Brooymans and Ryan Jackson went to Fort Chipewyan to learn more about water concerns in the shadow of industrial development. A 2009 Alberta Cancer Board report showed there are 30 per cent more cancers than expected in the community, but said the small population cast doubt on the statistical significance of the numbers.

Baseline study of the water quality and aquatic resources of the MacKay River, Alberta


Year: 1978

Abstract:
Syncrude Canada Ltd. is producing synthetic crude oil from a surface mine on the eastern portion of Crown Lease 17, Alberta. Aquatic Environments Limited was commissioned to survey the MacKay River which crosses Leases 17 and 22, also held by Syncrude. The survey is intended to provide a baseline, as Syncrude's present operations do not affect the MacKay watershed. The pattern of discharge in the MacKay River in 1977 was characterized by three peaks, two major (April 19 and July 8) and one minor (October 16). Peak discharge for the year was 22.5 m3/sec and the low 0.2 m3/sec. Mean discharge was 4.2 m3/sec per day and total discharge was 176.6 x 106 m3. The densities of periphyton were highest on natural substrates than on either artificial substrate. In general, the densities were low throughout the summer but increased in September. At some locations, however, densities on glass substrates were highest in July. A total of 80 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa was collected, with 59 taxa found at the Upper Station, 56 at the Middle Station, and 49 at the Lower Station. In total, 19 fish species were collected from the MacKay River. The common or abundant species are: goldeye, northern pike, lake chub, longnose dace, longnose sucker, white sucker, trout-perch, walleye, and slimy sculpin.

Concentrations of metallothionein in fish Peace Athabasca and Slave River basins September to December 1994


Year: 1996

Abstract:
Fish from Peace, Athabasca and Slave rivers and their tributaries are exposed to a variety of pulp mill, municipal and industrial effluents (EnviResource 1995; Brown and Vandenbyllaardt, 1996). Assessments of effects of contaminants have focussed on chlorinated organic compounds, such as dioxins and furans (Pastershank and Muir, 1995), and on alterations of parameters affecting reproduction physiology in individual fish (Brown et al., 1993; Brown et al., 1996; Lockhart et al., 1996). These studies have demonstrated that there is exposure to organic contaminants because mixed function oxidase activities are elevated (Lockhart, et al., 1996; Lockhart and Metner, 1996); and that fish collected downstream from the pulp mills may be stressed, because they exhibit a high percentage of sexually immature individuals, and they have depressed circulating concentrations of gonadal steroid hormones (Brown et al., 1993; Brown et al., 1996). The purpose of the research described in this report was to initiate studies to see if metals may be contibuting to these stresses. The objective was to evaluate whether the metal-binding protein, metallothionein, was elevated in organs of burbot, longnose sucker, northern pike or flathead chub collected downstream from pulp mills and other effluent discharge points, and whether there was evidence of cumulative impacts with progression downstream in these rivers. An increase in MT concentrations in fish represents a molecular response that generally indicates exposure and development of resistance to toxicity to metals, especially Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn (Klaverkamp et al. 1991; Roesijadi, 1992). The study was designed by the Northern River Basins Study Science Directors and the Contaminants Component Leader, and was based on selecting fish collection sites on their proximity to discharges from pulp mills. Additional information on fish collection sites and on general biological parameters of fish collected in 1994 is presented in other reports (EnviResource 1995; Brown et al. 1996). Two observations were made, both in burbot, which may indicate exposure to elevated metal concentrations and the presence of cumulative impacts. First, the greatest difference in MT concentrations between collection sites was observed in kidney of burbot collected in the Slave River Delta (SRD) of Great Slave lake. MT concentrations in kidneys from these fish ranged from approximately 7-times to 26-times higher than those concentrations found in kidneys of burbot from other collection sites. MT concentrations in gill of burbot from SRD were also the highest observed. The SRD burbot may be exposed to metals due to natural conditions of high mineralization in the Great Slave Lake Delta or other parts of the lake; or these fish may be exposed to metals discharged by mining operations, such as the decommissioned lead-zinc mine at Pine Point. The counterclockwise current in this portion of the lake could transport metals from a western source, such as Pine Point, to the Slave Delta (English, 1984). Second, a progressive increase in MT concentration in proceeding from upstream fish collection sites to downstream sites was observed in concentrations of MT in burbot liver. In the Peace River and associated tributaries (Little Smoky, Smoky, and Wapiti), there is a progressive increase of up to 3.34-fold in burbot liver [MT] moving from upstream to downstream collection sites. In the upper Athabasca River system, there is a progressive increase of up to 2.33-fold in burbot liver [MT] moving from upstream to downstream collection sites.

Early successional wildlife monitoring on reclamation plots in the Athabasca oil sands region


Author(s): Hawkes, V. C.

Year: 2011

Abstract:
Assessing the effectiveness of reclamation efforts to create wildlife habitat in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region requires an assessment of wildlife use of reclaimed areas as well as the development of scientifically defensible and repeatable survey methods. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) is mandated to develop guidance documents for assessing reclamation effectiveness on oil sands leases. As part of a pilot study funded by CEMA to assess the use of early successional stands (i.e., those ranging in age from 4 to 17 years) by wildlife (songbirds, small mammals, and ungulates), a wildlife monitoring protocol was developed and field tested in 2010 and 2011. The purpose of this project was to (1) set standards upon which to base longer-term monitoring, and (2) identify wildlife groups that will indicate whether reclaimed ecosystems satisfy land use objectives, including the objective of returning wildlife to reclaimed habitats. The study achieved the following goals: 1) an assessment of the return and re-establishment of early successional wildlife to reclaimed terrestrial systems; 2) an assessment of the feasibility of the recommended protocols for monitoring wildlife on reclaimed terrestrial systems; 3) the development of recommendations for the wildlife appendix of the Guidelines for Reclamation to Forest Vegetation in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region for early successional wildlife monitoring based on the monitoring program results; and 4) the collection of monitoring data to assist in identifying and developing wildlife indicators for reclamation certification. Early indications suggest that the proposed methods are suitable for documenting wildlife use of reclaimed plots; however, the frequency and duration of monitoring needs to be increased to determine patterns of re-establishment and use by wildlife.

Gregoire Lake monitoring program: Six month report April to September 1979


Author(s): Murray, W. A.

Year: 1981

Abstract:
This report presents a summary of the meteorological data collected by the meteorological tower network in the Gregoire Lake region of northeast Alberta during the spring and summer of 1979. The network was established to help monitor the impact on the environment by the Amoco Canada Co. Ltd. pilot plant. A previous report, prepared by Athabasca Research Corporation (Ferguson 1979), presented an analysis of the winter 1978-79 data. A discussion is presented of the theoretical meteorological background including synoptic and mesoscale influences on the dispersion of effluents emitted into the atmosphere. Field dispersion experiments in the oil sands area are reviewed briefly. The statistics of the various weather elements are discussed. Wind velocity was measured at the 30 m tower level at Anzac, the Gregoire Lake Provincial Park, the Amoco pilot plant, and Stoney Mountain. Temperature, relative humidity, vertical velocity, precipitation, barometric pressure, and solar radiation were to be monitored at the pilot plant. The system for recording these data was not completely debugged by the end of the summer so data are not available yet. The meteorological statistics and the case studies indicated that when the air is stable or neutral, the regional airflow is deflected to follow the contours of the ridge, which is south of Gregoire Lake, and parallel to the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers. Under convectively unstable conditions, air flow tended to be upslope at the plant site and on Stoney Mountain, but similar to the regional flow at the valley stations. Wind speeds were generally light in agreement with long-term records in the oil sands area. Temperatures also followed the longterm trends. Examination of local meteorological and upper air data from Edmonton and Fort Smith indicated that the high concentrations of nitric oxide recorded on 27 September 1979 may have been related to low mixing heights. The source was probably not the pilot plant because the wind had been from the northwest for several hours prior to the incident. It is recommended that the reliability of data acquisition be improved. A study such as this one depends on valid, complete data it is of little value to collect data which has uncertainties as to time, calibration, or scale zeroes.

Long term prediction of vegetation performance on mined sands


Author(s): Bliss, L. C.

Year: 1977

Abstract:
This project on the \"Long Term Prediction of Vegetation Performance On Mined Sands\" (V.E.6.1) was undertaken to provide management with answers on the predictive ability to maintain different kinds of vegetation on raw sands. The research was designed as an integrated, multi-disciplinary program that would concentrate on the role of water stress in a dynamic soil-plant-atmosphere system of a planted grass cover and a natural Jack pine forest. To date only the latter project has been initiated because of the lack of funding and approval to work on the GCOS dike in 1975. This and the Syncrude dyke represent the worst (driest) environmental situation and therefore revegetation of other sand deposits should be more easily accomplished. The Richardson Fire Tower site was chosen because of the representativeness of its Jack pine - lichen woodland on deep sands, a forest type so characteristic of northeastern Alberta. The results of the first full year show that climatically this southwest-facing sand slope warms more rapidly in spring than do level sites at Mildred Lake and Fort McMurray and that the 1976 summer was above normal for temperature. Precipitation was near normal based upon the 1941 - 1970 period. Of the >60 days of precipitation, over 60% were 4 mm or less and thus little if any water entered the soil due to tree, lichen, and litter interception. Both needle duff and lichens provide a significant barrier to surface evaporation compared with open sand. Resistance to evaporation is 2 to 3 times greater with a lichen cover than with litter. The soils are very porous which is advantageous for water entrance, thus preventing erosion but porosity is a disadvantage in maintaining higher water levels near the soil surface for plant growth. These soils recharge during snowmelt in late March - early April; little runoff occurs and over the summer soil water drawdown takes place. Soil moisture content (volume basis) is generally 8 - 15% near the surface in spring, but by late September is 1 - 3% at all depths. Xylem water potentials, a measure of tree water content, were never very low (mean maximum at dawn -5 to -7 atm. and mean minimum at midday -11 to -14 atm.) which reflect a year of average precipitation with frequent light rains and periodic heavier storms. Transpiration and stomatal closure were controlled largely by vapour pressure deficits. Jack pine avoided spring drought by remaining dormant when air and needle temperatures were above freezing, yet when soils were still frozen. Although Jack pine did not show indications of severe drought in a relatively moist summer, it did develop xylem water potentials of -16 to -18 atm., values which are probably detrimental to many of the species being used in revegetation trials on the dike (Bromus inermis, Phleum pratense, and species of Agropyron). This means that potential species must be drought hardy and tested under laboratory rather than only under field conditions to determine their survival under severe drought conditions that may occur but once in 30 to 50 years. The studies of mycorrhizae show that a large number of species of fungi infect the roots of Jack pine and that the infecting flora from disturbed soils (old burns) is quite different from that of undisturbed forests. Since mycorrhizae are critical for the proper growth and survival of pines, care in innoculating tree seedlings with the proper species is essential. The energy and water balance mathematical model predicts the heat and water status of the Jack pine forest. Examination of the model outputs suggests that late season resistance to water uptake occurs because of increased root resistance in autumn. If this is confirmed with further experimental data, and model runs, it means that fall droughts may be especially critical because of the reduced ability of the trees to absorb water through their roots. A second field season coupled with the laboratory studies to determine lethal and sublethal levels of water stress in Jack pine will provide the added inputs to the models necessary for predicting tree response to severe climatic stress. These data, gathered in a highly integrated manner, will permit the calculation of tree survival on sands, be they dikes or other kinds of mined sand, in terms of soil water content and tree density (including crown extent) in relation to the exceptional dry year that may occur once in 30 to 50 years. Data from field trials of grasses or woody species, without supporting measurements of plant physiological responses to environmental conditions cannot provide this essential predictive tool for management unless the one in 30 to 50 year drought cycle is encountered. It is for this reason that modelling of the data in order to predict plant response to unusual environmental conditions becomes so useful. In summary, this study should be able to provide sufficient data to determine whether or not an open stand of Jack pine or similar conifer is the desired end point in maintaining vegetation at a low maintenance cost on sands, the result of open pit mining of the oil sands.

Migration of inconnu (Stenodus leucichthys) and burbot (Lota lota), Slave River and Great Slave Lake, June 1994 to July 1995


Year: 1996

Abstract:
To determine the timing of movements and relative abundance of burbot, Lota lota, and inconnu, Stenodus leucichthys, on the lower Slave River north of the 60th parallel, we sampled on a regular basis using gillnets from June to November, 1994. Movement patterns in time and space in the Slave River and Great Slave Lake were determined by radio-tagging 24 inconnu and 16 burbot in the fall of 1994. Tracking was carried through the fall of 1994 through to July 1995. Inconnu entered the Slave River system from Great Slave Lake in August and attained peak catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) during the first two weeks of September. By November they had left the system. Burbot CPUE did not increase substantially, therefore, no discemable pattern of movement was recognized from catches. Radio-tagged inconnu stayed in the Fort Smith area of the river until late October when they migrated out of the system into Great Slave Lake. Migrations in Great Slave Lake appeared to be geographically extensive. From January to the end of August 1995, all inconnu were captured or detected by radio telemetry in Great Slave Lake, only. No inconnu were detected or captured in the Slave River. Extensive floy- tagging programs conducted by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans corroborate these observations for inconnu in Great Slave Lake. Burbot appeared to be relatively sedentary and probably escaped detection by residing in deep holes of the river and the river delta. These movement patterns signify that inconnu may transfer contaminants over a large area including Great Slave Lake whereas burbot would concentrate contaminants locally in the lower Slave River and its delta.

Performance of grasses shrubs and trees on disturbed soil at the AOSERP Mildred Lake camp experimental area


Year: 1980

Abstract:
The plants referred to in this report were initially established on the AOSERP Mildred Lake Camp area in 1977. The objectives of the program were to establish grass, shrub and tree species for evaluation of their response, particularly their reproduction response, to the climatic and edaphic conditions north of Fort McMurray. Over the 1977 growing season, 50 species and/or sources of grasses were spring seeded, 47 species and/or sources were started in containers and transplanted to the field and 24 species and/or sources were fall seeded. In addition, 12 woody plant species and/or sources were also planted in the field after growth in the greenhouse in containers. This report discusses the results of an evaluation of the plants conducted in late August and September, 1979.