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Frank Lake


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Foothills No. 31 AB
Canada

Frank Lake


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Athabasca County No. 12 AB
Canada

Frank Lake


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SK
Canada

Chemical fingerprinting of naphthenic acids and oil sands process waters - A review of analytical methods for environmental samples


Year: 2013

Abstract:
This article provides a review of the routine methods currently utilized for total naphthenic acid analyses. There is a growing need to develop chemical methods that can selectively distinguish compounds found within industrially derived oil sands process affected waters (OSPW) from those derived from the natural weathering of oil sands deposits. Attention is thus given to the characterization of other OSPW components such as oil sands polar organic compounds, PAHs, and heavy metals along with characterization of chemical additives such as polyacrylamide polymers and trace levels of boron species. Environmental samples discussed cover the following matrices: OSPW containments, on-lease interceptor well systems, on- and off-lease groundwater, and river and lake surface waters. There are diverse ranges of methods available for analyses of total naphthenic acids. However, there is a need for inter-laboratory studies to compare their accuracy and precision for routine analyses. Recent advances in high- and medium-resolution mass spectrometry, concomitant with comprehensive mass spectrometry techniques following multi-dimensional chromatography or ion-mobility separations, have allowed for the speciation of monocarboxylic naphthenic acids along with a wide range of other species including humics. The distributions of oil sands polar organic compounds, particularly the sulphur containing species (i.e., OxS and OxS2) may allow for distinguishing sources of OSPW. The ratios of oxygen- (i.e., Ox) and nitrogen-containing species (i.e., NOx, and N2Ox) are useful for differentiating organic components derived from OSPW from natural components found within receiving waters. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy also provides a powerful screening technique capable of quickly detecting the presence of aromatic organic acids contained within oil sands naphthenic acid mixtures. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy provides diagnostic profiles for OSPW and potentially impacted groundwater that can be compared against reference groundwater and surface water samples. Novel applications of X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) are emerging for speciation of sulphur-containing species (both organic and inorganic components) as well as industrially derived boron-containing species. There is strong potential for an environmental forensics application of XANES for chemical fingerprinting of weathered sulphur-containing species and industrial additives in OSPW.

Differential changes in gene expression in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to extracts of oil sands process-affected water and the Athabasca River


Year: 2012

Abstract:
The oil sands region of northern Alberta represents the world's largest reserves of bitumen, and the accelerated pace of industrial extraction activity has raised concern about the possible impacts on the Athabasca River and its tributaries. An ecotoxicogenomic study was undertaken on Oncorhynchus mykiss trout hepatocytes exposed to extracts of water samples near the oil sand development area, as well as to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) extracts using the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique. The expression of the following genes (mRNA) was monitored to track changes in xenobiotic biotransformation (CYP1A1, CYP3A4, glutathione S-transferase, multi-drug resistance transporter), estrogenicity (estrogen receptor and vitellogenin), oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and metallothionein) and DNA repair activity (DNA ligase). The extent of DNA-aromatic hydrocarbon adducts was also determined in cells by immuno-staining. A comparative analysis of gene expression between the river/lake and OSPW samples revealed that CYP3A4, metallothioneins, DNA ligase and GST genes, were specifically expressed by OSPW. Cells exposed to OSPW, commercial naphthenic acids, and benzo(a)pyrene showed increased polyaromatic hydrocarbon DNA-adducts, as determined by cell immunofluorescence analysis. Other genes were induced by all types of water samples, although the induction potential was stronger in OSPW most of the time (e.g., VTG gene was expressed nearly 15-fold by surface waters from the lake and river samples but increased to a maximum of 31-fold in OSPW). A multivariate discriminant function analysis revealed that the lake and river water samples were well discriminated from the OSPW. The CYP3A4 gene was the most highly expressed gene in cells exposed to OSPW and responded less to the lake or river water in the Athabasca River area. This study identified a suite of gene targets that responded specifically to OSPW extracts, which could serve as toxicogenomic fingerprints of OSPW contamination. Differential changes in gene expression in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to extracts of oil sands process-affected water and the Athabasca River (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221753631_Differential_changes_in_gene_expression_in_rainbow_trout_hepatocytes_exposed_to_extracts_of_oil_sands_process-affected_water_and_the_Athabasca_River [accessed Jan 18, 2016].

Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters


Year: 2011

Abstract:
Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 μS/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ∼40 mg/l and conductivity ∼2000 μS/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 μS/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction.

First Nations from across North America take part in fifth and final Healing Walk in Fort McMurray


Year: 2014

Abstract:
FORT MCMURRAY, AB, June 28, 2014 /CNW/ - First Nations from across North America took part today in the fifth and final Healing Walk in Fort McMurray, Alberta, an annual event that organizers say has achieved its ultimate purpose of building unity and alliances among First Nations impacted by tar sands development in Canada and the United States. Fort McMurray, the centre of tar sands development, was once traditional hunting, fishing and gathering grounds. The walk offered healing prayers to the land and to build strength and unity among people impacted by tar sands development. "First Nations communities were once scared to share their stories about tar sands impacts, but the Healing Walk has been a safe place to share knowledge so that today First Nations are stronger than ever to fight tar sands development across North America," said Eriel Deranger, of the Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation.

Frank Sound Interview


Author(s): Sound, F.

Year: 1977

Abstract:
19 p. transcript of an interview with Frank Sound, conducted by Rose Saddleback on July 13, 1977. Tape number IH-326, transcript disc 28. This 62-year-old speaks of the history of Lesser Slave Lake Reserves; and gives details of the history of Swan River Reserve.